Statistics

Modern research heavily depends on statistics:

the practice or science of collecting and analysing numerical data in large quantities, especially for the purpose of inferring proportions in a whole from those in a representative sample.

When or if a study is conducted properly and all the collected data is presented, then statistics is an useful tool to begin to understand if something meaningful is going on. However, if the study itself omits a crucial component or has a too narrow or biased selection of the subject or methods then the collected data should be looked at with the highest possible scrutiny.

A useful online resource to begin to learn about statistics is for example the Onlinestatbook